Fens and related wetlands support unique plant communities, which in turn support unique bees. The Parnassia Miner (Andrena parnassiae) is a specialist on Grass of Parnassus (Parnassia), a fall blooming flower found in calcareous fens and river bank communities. Anecdotal reports suggest this plant is severely threatened in much of its range by development, nutrification, and invasive species. In Vermont, this flower and bee are regularly found at numerous sites but may be threatened by the same pressures in the future. Other flowering plants in fens are used by a number of rare bees, especially in colder parts of the state.
Habitat: Fens

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